Folkard. Plant lore, legends, and lyrics

Today's free book is Plant lore, legends, and lyrics. Embracing the myths, traditions, superstitions, and folk-lore of the plant kingdom by Richard Folkard, Jr. (1884). For the table of contents, check at the bottom of this post below the image.

The book is available at Hathi Trust and at Project Gutenberg (I have not checked for other online sources).


Table of Contents

PART THE FIRST.
INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I.
THE WORLD-TREES OF THE ANCIENTS.—The Scandinavian Ash—The Hindu World-Tree—The World-Tree of the Buddhists—The Iranian World-Tree—The Assyrian Sacred Tree—The Mother Tree of the Greeks, Romans, and Teutons

CHAPTER II.
THE TREES OF PARADISE AND THE TREE OF ADAM.—The Terrestrial Paradise—The Paradise of the Persians, Arabians, Hindus, Scandinavians, and Celts—The Mosaic Paradise—Eden and the Walls of its Garden—The Tree of Life—The Tree of Knowledge—The Forbidden Fruit—Adam’s Departure from Paradise—Seth’s Journey to the Garden of Eden—The Death of Adam—The Seeds of the Tree of Life—Moses and his Rods—King David and the Rods—Solomon and the Cedars of Lebanon—The Tree of Adam and the Tree of the Cross

CHAPTER III.
SACRED PLANTS OF THE ANCIENTS.—The Parsis and the Cypress—The Oak—Sacred Plants and Trees of the Brahmans and Buddhists—Plants Revered by the Burmans—The Cedar, Elm, Ash, Rowan, Baobab, Nipa, Dragon Tree, Zamang, and Moriche Palm—The Nelumbo or Sacred Bean—Plants Worshipped by Egyptians—The Lotus, Henna, and Pomegranate—Sacred Plants of the Græco-Roman Divinities—Plants of the Norse Gods

CHAPTER IV.
FLORAL CEREMONIES, GARLANDS, AND WREATHS.—The Altars of the Gods—Flowers, Fragrant Woods, and Aromatics—Incense—Perfumes—Ceremonies of the Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans—The Roman Triumphs—Festivals of the Terminalia and Floralia—May-day Customs—Well-flowering—Harvest Festivals—Flowers and Weddings—Floral Games of Toulouse and Salency—The Rosière—Rose Pelting—Battle of Flowers—Japanese New Year’s Festival—Wreaths, Chaplets, and Garlands

CHAPTER V.
PLANTS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.—The Virgin Mary and her Flowers—Joseph’s Plants—The Plants of Bethlehem—Flora of the Flight into Egypt—The Herb of the Madonna—Plants of the Virgin—The Annunciation, Visitation, and Assumption—The Rosary—The Plants of Christmas—The Garden of Gethsemane—Plants of the Passion—The Crown of Thorns—The Wood of the Cross—Veronica—The Plants of Calvary—The Trees and the Crucifixion—The Tree of Judas—Plants of St. John the Baptist—Plant Divination on St. John’s Eve—Flowers of the Saints—The Floral Calendar—Flowers of the Church’s Festivals—Decoration of Churches—Gospel Oaks—Memorial Trees—The Glastonbury Thorn—St. Joseph’s Walnut Tree—St. Martin’s Yew

CHAPTER VI.
PLANTS OF THE FAIRIES AND NAIADES.—The Elves and the Oak—Elves of the Forest—The Elf of the Fir-tree—The Rose Elf—Moss or Wood Folk—The Black Dwarfs—The Still Folk—The Procca—English Fairies—The Fairy Steed—Fairy Revels—Elf Grass—Fairy Plants—The Cowslip, or Fairy Cup—The Foxglove, or Lusmore—The Four-leaved Clover—The Fairy Unguent—The Russalkis—Naiades and Water Nymphs—The Fontinalia—Fays of the Well

CHAPTER VII.
SYLVANS, WOOD NYMPHS, AND TREE SPIRITS.—Fauns, Satyrs, Dryads, and Hamadryads—The Laurel Maiden—The Willow Nymph—The Sister of the Flowers—Sacred Groves and their Denizens—The Spirits of the Forest—The Indian Tree Ghosts—The Burmese Nats—The African Wood Spirits—The Waldgeister of the Germans—The Elder-mother—German Tree and Field Spirits

CHAPTER VIII.
PLANTS OF THE DEVIL.—Puck’s Plant—Pixie-stools—Loki’s Plants—The Trolls and the Globe-flower—Accursed and Unlucky Plants—Plants connected with the Black Art—Plant-haunting Demons—The Devil and Fruit Trees—Tree Demons on St. John’s Eve—Demons of the Woods and Fields—The Herb of the Devil—Poisonous and Noxious Plants—Ill-omened Plants—The Devil’s Key—Plants Inimical to the Devil—The Devil-Chaser—The Deadly Upas—The Manchineel—The Oleander—The Jatropha Urens—The Lotos—The Elder—The Phallus Impudicus—The Carrion Flower—The Antchar—The Loco or Rattle Weed—The Aquapura—Deadly Trees of Hispaniola and New Andalusia—Poisonous Plants

CHAPTER IX.
PLANTS OF THE WITCHES.—The Herbs of Hecate, Circe, and Medea—Witch Powder—Witches and Elders—Sylvan Haunts of Witches—Witches’ Plant-steeds—Witches’ Soporifics—The Nightmare Flower—Plants used in Spells—Potions, Philtres, and Hell-broths—The Hag Taper—Witch Ointment—The Witches’ Bath—Foreign Witches and their Plants—Plants used for Charms and Spells—Witches’ Prescriptions—Herbs of Witchcraft—Plants Antagonistic to Witches

CHAPTER X.
MAGICAL PLANTS.—Plants producing Ecstasies and Visions—Soma—Laurel—The Druids and Mistletoe—Prophetic Oaks—Dream Plants—Plants producing Love and Sympathy—The Sorcerer’s Violet—Plants used for Love Divination—Concordia—Discordia—The Calumny Destroyer—The Grief Charmer—The Sallow, Sacred Basil, Eugenia, Onion, Bay, Juniper, Peony, Hypericum, Rowan, Elder, Thorn, Hazel, Holly—The Mystic Fern-seed—Four-leaved Clover—The Mandrake, or Sorcerer’s Root—The Metal Melter—The Misleading Plant—Herb of Oblivion—Lotos Tree—King Solomon’s Magical Herb Baharas—The Nyctilopa and Springwort—Plants influencing Thunder and Lightning—The Selago, or Druid’s Golden Herb—Gold-producing Plants—Plants which disclose Treasures—The Luck Flower—The Key-Flower—Sesame—The Herb that Opens—The Moonwort, or Lunary—The Sferracavallo—Magic Wands and Divining Rods—Moses’ Rod

CHAPTER XI.
FABULOUS, WONDROUS, AND MIRACULOUS PLANTS.—Human Trees—Man-bearing Trees—The Wak-Wak, or Tree bearing Human Heads—Chinese and Indian Bird-bearing Tree—Duck-bearing Tree—The Barnacle, or Goose Tree—The Serpent-bearing Tree—The Oyster-bearing Tree—The Animal-bearing Tree—The Butterfly-bearing Tree—The Vegetable Lamb—The Lamb-bearing Tree—Marvellous Trees and Plants—Vegetable Monstrosities—Plants bearing Inscriptions and Figures—Miraculous Plants—The Tree of St. Thomas—The Withered Tree of the Sun—The Tree of Tiberias—Father Garnet’s Straw

CHAPTER XII.
PLANTS CONNECTED WITH BIRDS AND ANIMALS.—Seed-sowing Birds—Birds as Almanacks—The Cuckoo and the Cherry Tree—Augury by Cock and Barley—The Nightingale and the Rose—The Robin and the Thorn—The Missel-Thrush and Mistletoe—The Swallow and Celandine—The Hawk and Hawkweed—Life-giving Herb—The Woodpecker and the Peony—The Spring-wort and the Birds—Choughs and Olives—Herb of the Blessed Virgin Mary—The Eyebright and Birds—Plants named after Birds and Animals

CHAPTER XIII.
THE DOCTRINE OF PLANT SIGNATURES.—Illustrations and Examples of the Signatures and Characterisms of Plants—The Diseases Cured by Herbs—General Rules of the System of Plant Signatures supposed to Reveal the Occult Powers and Virtues of Vegetables—Plants Identified with the Various Portions of the Human Body—The Old Herbals and Herbalists—Extraordinary Properties attributed to Herbs

CHAPTER XIV.
PLANTS AND THE PLANETS.—When to Pluck Herbs—The Plants of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Sun, and the Moon—Sun Flowers—The Influence of the Moon on Plants—Times and Seasons to Sow and Plant—The Moon and Gardening Operations—The Moon-Tree—Plants of the Moon-Goddesses—The Man in the Moon

CHAPTER XV.
PLANT SYMBOLISM AND LANGUAGE.—Plant Emblems of the Ancients—The Science of Plant Symbolism—Floral Symbols of the Scriptures—The Passion Flower, or Flower of the Five Wounds—Mediæval Plant Symbolism—Floral Emblems of Shakspeare—The Language of Flowers—Floral Vocabulary of the Greeks and Romans—A Dictionary of Flowers—Floral Divination

CHAPTER XVI.
FUNERAL PLANTS.—The Ancient Death-Gods—The Elysian Fields—Death Trees—Funereal Trees—Aloe, Yew, Cypress, Bay, Arbor-Vitæ, Walnut, Mountain Ash, Tamarisk—The Decorations of Tombs—Flowers at Funerals—Old English Burial Customs—Funeral Pyres—Embalming—Mummies—Plants as Death Portents

PART THE SECOND.

AN ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SIX HUNDRED PLANTS, ENGLISH AND FOREIGN, giving their Myths, Legends, Traditions, Folk-Lore, Symbolism, and History

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