Frazer. Folklore in the Old Testament, Part 2

Today's free book is Folklore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion, Legend, and Law by James George Frazer. The book is in 4 parts, divided in 3 volumes. Below is the index for Part II, "The Patriarchal Age," which is split between Volume 1 and Volume 2.

For the table of contents, check at the bottom of this post below the image.

Frazer Folklore in the Old Testament, Volume 1
Internet ArchiveHathiGoogle Books

Frazer Folklore in the Old Testament, Volume 2
Internet ArchiveHathiGoogle Books


PART II: THE PATRIARCHAL AGE

CHAPTER I: THE COVENANT OF ABRAHAM

The Patriarchal Age described in Genesis
God's covenant with Abraham
Hebrew covenant by cutting a sacrificial victim in two
Similar Greek modes of ratifying oaths
Similar modes of swearing among the Scythians
Similar ceremonies at peacemaking in East Africa
Ceremonies at peacemaking in South Africa
Similar ceremonies among tribes of Assam
Two theories of the ceremonies, the retributive and the sacramental or purificatory
The retributive theory implied in some cases
Ceremony at peacemaking among the Awome of Calabar
Retributive theory confirmed by Greek and Roman practice
Retributive theory illustrated by an Assyrian inscription
Similar sacrifices and imprecations in the ritual of barbarous tribes
The slaughter of the victim symbolizes the fate of the perjurer
The sacramental or purificatory theory
Bisection of victims in purificatory ceremonies
The purificatory theory confirmed by a modern Arab rite
Similar rites observed by Chins, Koryaks, and gipsies
Significance of the passage between the pieces of the victim
Robertson Smith's sacramental interpretation of the Hebrew rite
The interpretation confirmed by savage rituals
Half-skeleton of bisected human body found at Gezer
The half-skeleton probably a relic of human sacrifice
Alternative explanations, the purificatory and the covenantal, of the bisection of human victims
The purificatory or protective explanation of the rite
Discovery of another half-skeleton of a human victim at Gezer
The half-skeleton not explicable as a foundation sacrifice
Covenantal explanation of half-skeletons confirmed by Wachaga practice
Retributive theory of Hebrew rite confirmed by Wachaga parallel
Retributive and sacramental theories complementary
Theory of vicarious sacrifice in modern Syria
Vicarious aspect of bisected victims in ritual

CHAPTER II: THE HEIRSHIP OF JACOB OR ULTIMOGENITURE

§ I Traces of Ultimogeniture in Israel
The character of Jacob
His alleged frauds on his brother and father
Theory that Jacob, as the younger son, was the heir
Traces of junior right or ultimogeniture in patriarchal history
Traces of ultimogeniture in the history of David

§ 2 Ultimogeniture in Europe
Borough English in England
Ultimogeniture in France
Ultimogeniture in Friesland and Germany
Ultimogeniture in Russia
Ultimogeniture in Hungary

§ 3 The Question of the Origin of Ultimogeniture
Blackstone on the origin of Borough English
Ultimogeniture among the Turks and Mongols

§ 4 Ultimogeniture in Southern Asia
The Lushais of Assam, their migratory cultivation
Youngest son a chief's heir among the Lushais
Ultimogeniture in private families among the Lushais
Ultimogeniture among the Angamis of Assam
Ultimogeniture among the Naga tribes of Manipur
Ultimogeniture among the Meitheis of Assam
Ultimogeniture among the Kachins or Singphos of Burma
Systems of ownership dependent on systems of agriculture
Economic advance from migratory agriculture and communal ownership to permanent agriculture and individual ownership
The Kachins practise both migratory and permanent agriculture
Ultimogeniture among the Kachins of China
Ultimogeniture among the Shans of China
Ultimogeniture among the Chins
Compromise between ultimogeniture and primogeniture among the Hkamies
Ultimogeniture among the Lolos of China
Heirship of youngest daughter among the Khasis and Garos of Assam
Mother-kin among the Khasis
Youngest daughter the heir among the Khasis
Why daughters rather than sons are heirs among the Khasis
The Garos
Mother-kin among the Garos
Heirship of the youngest daughter among the Garos
Original home of Mongolian tribes practising ultimogeniture
Ultimogeniture among the Mrus
The Hos or Larka Coles of Bengal
Ultimogeniture and primogeniture among the Hos
The Bhils of Central India
Ultimogeniture among the Bhils
Ultimogeniture among the Badagas of Southern India
Traces of ultimogeniture in the Malay region and Georgia

§ 5 Ultimogeniture in North-Eastern Asia
Ultimogeniture among the Yukaghirs
Ultimogeniture among the Chukchee
Ultimogeniture among the Koryaks

§ 6 Ultimogeniture in Africa
Rarity of ultimogeniture in Africa
Rights of youngest sons among the Bogos, Suks, and Turkanas
Ultimogeniture among the Ibos of Southern Nigeria
Ultimogeniture among the Ba-Ngoni of Mozambique
Why some chiefs are reluctant to see their grandsons

§ 7 The Origin of Ultimogeniture
Why youngest sons are preferred as heirs
Why youngest daughters are preferred as heirs
Preference for youngest sons natural among pastoral tribes
Ultimogeniture tends to pass into primogeniture

§ 8 Ultimogeniture and Jus Primae Noctis
Theory of the illegitimacy of the eldest child
Robert Plot on Borough English
Plot's erroneous interpretation of Marcheta mulierum
Plot's theory rejected by modern historians of English law
King Evenus and the so-called jus primae noctis in Scotland
The legislation of Evenus a fable
The fable born of a misinterpretation of the merchet
Modern legal authorities on the merchet
No evidence of the so-called jus primae noctis in Britain
Survival of the merchet in the highlands of Scotland
African parallel to the merchet
The so-called jus primae noctis equally fabulous on the Continent
Misapprehension of the real jus primae noctis
The "Tobias Nights " enjoined by the Catholic Church
The story of Tobias and his wife Sarah
The remission of the "Tobias Nights" the jus primae noctis
Lawsuit between Abbeville and the Bishop of Amiens
Survival of "Tobias Nights" in modern Europe
The practice of continence after marriage older than Christianity
Continence for several nights after marriage in Vedic India
Continence after marriage in non-Aryan tribes of India
Continence after marriage in hill tribes of Assam and Burma
Continence after marriage in the Indian Archipelago and New Guinea
Continence after marriage among the aborigines of Australia
Continence after marriage in African tribes
Continence after marriage among American Indians
The function of bridesmen and bridesmaids
"Tobias Nights" probably borrowed from paganism
The "Tobias Nights" an interpolation in The Book of Tobit
Continence after marriage probably based on fear of demons
Precautions against demons at marriage in many lands
Precautions at the marriage of widowers and widows
Mock marriages of widowers and widows in India
No real evidence of alleged seignorial right in Europe
Ultimogeniture not derived from alleged seignorial right
Slight ground for such a derivation among the Lolos
Marco Polo on the defloration of virgins in Tibet
Liberty accorded to Lolo brides after marriage
Defloration of brides could not explain ultimogeniture

§ 9 Ultimogeniture and Polygamy
Ultimogeniture traced to preference for youngest wife in a polygamous family
The theory not supported by the evidence
The first wife the chief wife of a polygamous family in West Africa
The first wife the chief wife in Central and East Africa
The first wife the chief wife in South Africa
In some Kafir tribes a chief's principal wife not the first wife
Superiority of a later wife explained by Chief's reluctance to see his grandchild
Suggested explanation of this reluctance
"Great wife," "Right-hand wife," "Left-hand wife" in Kafir tribes
In Kafir law succession regulated by primogeniture
In India the first wife of a polygamous family generally the chief wife
In other parts of Asia the first wife generally the chief wife
In the Indian Archipelago the first wife generally the chief wife
Among the American Indians the first wife generally the chief wife
Among the Eskimo and Greenlanders the first wife generally the chief wife
In polygamous families generally the first wife the chief wife
Tendency of polygamy to favour primogeniture

§ 10 Ultimogeniture and Infanticide
Ultimogeniture and the killing of the firstborn
The two customs probably unconnected

§ 11 Superstitions about youngest children
Superstitions about youngest children in many lands
Youngest sons in ritual among the Akikuyu
Youngest sons in ritual among the Taiyals of Formosa

****** Volume II begins here ******

CHAPTER III: JACOB AND THE KIDSKINS: OR THE NEW BIRTH

§ 1 The Diverted Blessing
Story of Jacob's trick perhaps a reminiscence of a legal ceremony
How Jacob, disguised as his elder brother, obtained the blessing
Displacement of an elder by a younger son in the succession

§ 2 Sacrificial Skins in Ritual
East African tribes in relation to the Semites
Fat and skin of animal in Galla rite of adoption
Rings made from skins of sacrificial victims in East Africa
Kikuyu ceremony of the new birth
Assimilation of mother and child to sheep and lamb
Sacrificial skins at Kikuyu ceremony of adoption
Sacrificial skins at circumcision in East Africa
Sacrificial skins at marriage in East Africa
Sacrificial skins at covenants in East Africa
Sacrificial skins in another Kikuyu rite
Sacrificial skins at sacrifices in East Africa
Sacrificial skins in sickness, etc. in East Africa
Sacrificial skins at expiations among the Wachaga
Sacrificial skins at expiations among the Akikuyu
Sacrificial skins at expiations among the Wawanga
Sacrificial skins at transference of government in East Africa
Victim's skin intended to identify the wearer with the animal
Passing a child through a skin ring in Madagascar

§ 3 The New Birth
Legal fiction of a new birth to effect a change of status
Fiction of new birth at adoption in antiquity and the Middle Ages
Fiction of new birth at adoption among Slavs and Turks
Fiction of new birth at adoption among the Klemantans
Fiction of new birth at adoption among the Bahima
Fiction of new birth enacted in Greece and India by persons erroneously thought to be dead
Fiction of new birth to raise a Brahman to the rank of a god
Fiction of new birth in India as expiation for breach of custom
Fiction of new birth from a metal cow as expiation in India
Fiction of new birth from a golden cow to raise Maharajahs of Travancore to Brahman rank
Fiction of new birth from a live cow in India
Rite of new birth tends to dwindle into an abridged form

§ 4 Conclusion
Jacob and the kidskins in relation to the rite of the new birth

CHAPTER IV: JACOB AT BETHEL

§ 1 Jacob's Dream
Jacob sent away to Laban in Haran
His dream of the heavenly ladder at Bethel
The stone at Bethel set up and anointed

§ 2 Dreams of the Gods
Belief that gods reveal themselves to men in dreams
Dreams in the sanctuary of Amphiaraus at Oropus
Dreams in the sanctuary of Aesculapius at Epidaurus
Dream oracle of Ino or Pasiphae in Laconia
Dream oracles in ancient Italy

§ 3 The Heavenly Ladder
African tales of heavenly ladders
Toradja tales of creepers connecting earth and heaven
Stories of heavenly ladder, etc. in Sumatra, Madagascar, and Russia
Ladders to facilitate the descent of gods or spirits
Ladders in graves for the dead to climb up

§ 4 The Sacred Stone
Popularity of the sanctuary at Bethel
Sacred stones at Canaanite and Hebrew sanctuaries
Stones worshipped by the ancient Arabs and Greeks
Worship of stones in the Banks' Islands and New Hebrides
Worship of stones in the Torres Straits Islands
Worship of stones in Samoa
Worship of stones in Bowditch Island and Nukunau
Worship of stones in the Indian Archipelago
Worship of stones among the Karens of Burma
Worship of stones among the Semas of Assam
Worship of stones in India
Worship of stones in China and the Caucasus
Worship of stones in Madagascar and Africa
Worship of stones among the North American Indians
The Gruagach stones in the highlands of Scotland
Sacred stones anointed in Norway
Sacred stones anointed in classical antiquity
Sacred stones anointed in India
Sacred stones anointed in the Kei Islands, Madagascar, and Africa
The anointed stone at Bethel
Many Bethels (baitylia) in Canaan
The standing stones (masseboth) of Canaanite sanctuaries

CHAPTER V: JACOB AT THE WELL

§ 1 Watering the Flocks
Jacob's meeting with Rachel at the well
Watering the flocks at wells in modern Palestine
Women as shepherdesses in Palestine and Arabia

§ 2 Weeping as a Salutation
The weeping of Jacob at meeting Rachel
Weeping at the meeting of friends in the Old Testament
Weeping at meeting among the Maoris
Weeping as a salutation in the Andaman Islands and India
Weeping as a salutation among the American Indians
Such salutations perhaps meant to effect a corporeal union
Initiation of a scavenger in the Punjab
Spittle at initiation among the Baluba
Spittle at covenanting and saluting in East Africa
The springs of tears and laughter

CHAPTER VI: JACOB'S MARRIAGE

§ 1 Jacob and his two Wives
Different motives assigned for Jacob's journey to Haran
Aversion of Jews to marriage with strange women
Jacob's marriage with his cousins in accordance with common custom

§ 2 The Marriage of Cousins
Distinction between cross-cousins, who are marriageable, and ortho-cousins, who are not marriageable

§ The Marriage of Cousins in India
Distinction in respect of cousin-marriage between Aryans and aborigines
Marriage of cousins forbidden by Hindoo law
Marriage of cross-cousins commonly preferred among the aborigines
Marriage with mother's brother's daughter in Southern India
Cross-cousin marriage among the Dravidians
Cross-cousin marriage in Ceylon and Cochin
Cross-cousin marriage among the Todas
Cross-cousin marriage among the Tamil-speaking Dravidians
Marriage with a niece in Southern India
Cross-cousin marriage among the Telugu-speaking Dravidians
Menarikam, marriage with a mother's brother's daughter
Marriage with a cross-cousin or a niece in Mysore
Cross-cousin marriage among the Canarese-speaking Dravidians
Cross-cousin marriage among Oriya-speaking castes of Southern India
Cross-cousin marriage among Brahmans in Southern India
Cross-cousin marriage in Central and Northern India
Cross-cousin marriage among the Gonds
Tendency to prefer marriage with father's sister's daughter
Economic motive for marriage with mother's brother's daughter
Marriage with father's sister's daughter forbidden in some castes
Economic motives for marriage with a cross-cousin
Preference for one of the two forms of cross-cousin marriage
Cross-cousin marriage among the Kotvalias of Baroda
Cross-cousin marriage among Dravidian tribes of Mirzapur
Cross-cousin marriage among Bhotiyas of Northern India
Cross-cousin marriage in the Punjab
Cross-cousin marriage among Mohammedans of NW India
Cross-cousin marriage among aboriginal tribes of Bengal
Cross-cousin marriage among Mongoloid tribes of Chittagong and Assam

§ 4 The Marriage of Cousins in other Parts of Asia
Cousin marriage practised in other parts of Asia
Cross-cousin marriage among the Chins of Burma
Cross-cousin marriage among the Singphos or Kachins of Burma
Cousin marriage among the Karens of Burma
Cousin marriage in Southern China and the Malay Peninsula
Cross-cousin marriage among the Gilyaks
Cousin marriage among the tribes of North-Eastern Siberia

§ 5 The Marriage of Cousins in America,
Cousin marriage hardly recorded among American aborigines
Cousin marriage among the Aleuts
Cousin marriage among the Eskimo
Cross-cousin marriage among the Western Tinnehs
Economic motive for marriage with mother's brother's daughter
Cross-cousin marriage probably once common in North America
Cross-cousin marriage among the Indians of the Antilles and South America

§ 6 The Marriage of Cousins in Africa
Cross-cousin marriage common in Africa
Cross-cousin marriage among the Herero
Cousin marriage among the Bantus of South-East Africa
Cousin marriage among the Nyanja-speaking tribes of Rhodesia
Cross-cousin marriage among the Awemba of Rhodesia
Cousin marriage forbidden among the Winamwanga
Cousin marriage forbidden in some tribes of Rhodesia
Cross-cousin marriage among the Wahehe and Wagogo
Cross-cousin marriage in West Africa and Egypt
Cousin marriage in Madagascar
The marriage of all first cousins forbidden among the Baganda, Banyoro, Basoga, and Bateso
Cross-cousins obliged to avoid each other among the Baganda
Inference from avoidance of cross-cousins among the Baganda
Marriage of cousins forbidden among the Akikuyu
Expiation for marriage of cousins among the Akikuyu
Marriage of cousins forbidden among the Thonga
Expiation for marriage of cousins among the Thonga
The bond of kinship conceived as physical
Marriage of cousins barred among Wabemba and Wahorohoro
Marriage of cousins barred among the Masai
Expiation for marriage of cousins among the Masai
Marriage of cousins barred among the Yorubas

§ 7 The Marriage of Cousins in the Indian Archipelago
Cross-cousin marriage in Sumatra
Cross-cousin marriage in the Kei Islands
Cross-cousin marriage in islands between New Guinea and Celebes
Cousin marriage in Celebes
Expiation for marriage with cousin once removed in Celebes
Marriage of cousins barred among some peoples of Celebes
Expiation for marriage of cousins in Celebes
Marriage of cousins barred in Java
Marriage of cousins barred in British Borneo
Expiation for marriage of cousins in Borneo
Marriage of cousins barred in Dutch Borneo

§ 8 The Marriage of Cousins in New Guinea and the Torres Straits Islands
Marriage of first cousins discountenanced in New Guinea
Marriage of first cousins discountenanced in Torres Straits
Cross-cousin marriage common in the Trobriand Islands

§ 9 The Marriage of Cousins in Melanesia
Cross-cousin marriage in New Caledonia
Cross-cousin marriage in the New Hebrides
Cross-cousin marriage in the Torres Islands
Cross-cousin marriage in Fiji
Ortho-cousins obliged to avoid each other in Fiji
Marriage of first cousins forbidden in the Banks' Islands
Marriage of first cousins forbidden in New Ireland
Cross-cousins obliged to avoid each other in New Ireland

§ 10 The Marriage of Cousins in Polynesia
Marriage of cousins discountenanced in Polynesia
Trace of cross-cousin marriage in Tonga
Second cousins allowed to marry in Rotuma
Marriage even of distant cousins rare in Mangaia

§ 11 The Marriage of Cousins in Australia
Marriage of cousins preferred in some tribes and forbidden in others
Cross-cousin marriage among the Urabunna
Cross-cousin marriage in Victoria and New South Wales
Cross-cousin marriage in Queensland and NW Australia
Marriage of children of cross-cousins among the Dieri
Contrast between Dieri and Urabunna customs
Marriage of ortho-cousins always barred by two-class exogamy
Marriage of children of cross-cousins among the Mardudhunera
Marriage of all cousins forbidden in some Australian tribes
Divergence of custom in regard to cousin-marriage in Australia

§ 12 Why is the Marriage of Cross-Cousins favoured?
Why is cross-cousin marriage favoured and ortho-cousin marriage forbidden?
Economic motive for cousin-marriage among the Australian aborigines
Economic value of a wife among the Australian aborigines
A wife generally obtained in exchange for a sister or daughter
Exchange of sisters or daughters for wives in South Australia
Exchange of sisters or daughters for wives in Victoria and New South Wales
Commercial value of women in aboriginal Australia
The rape of women from other tribes comparatively rare
By exchange old men get most of the young women for themselves
Sisters or daughters usually given in exchange for wives
Exchange of sisters probably older than exchange of daughters
Cross-cousin marriage a natural consequence of exchange of sisters in marriage
Cross-cousin marriage probably older than the recognition of paternity
Suggested origin of cross-cousin marriage confirmed by the practice of the Kariera
Double-cross cousins and single-cross cousins
Cross-cousin marriage in Australia probably everywhere an effect of the exchange of sisters in marriage
The exchange of sisters in marriage probably the source of cross-cousin marriage elsewhere
Cross-cousin marriage and exchange of sisters in Southern India
Economic advantage of exchange of sisters in marriage
Cross-cousin marriage and exchange of sisters among the Bhotiyas
Cross-cousin marriage and exchange of sisters among the Garos
Cousin marriage and exchange of daughters in Baluchistan
Cross-cousin marriage not a necessary effect of exchange of sisters or daughters
Exchange of sisters in marriage in Torres Straits
Exchange of sisters in marriage in New Guinea
Exchange of daughters in marriage among the Santals of Bengal
Exchange of daughters in marriage among the tribes of the French Sudan
Exchange of daughters in marriage in Sumatra
Exchange of daughters in marriage in Palestine
Probability that cross-cousin marriage originated in the exchange of sisters or daughters as wives

§ 13 Why is the marriage of Ortho-Cousins forbidden?
Marriage of ortho-cousins prevented by the dual organization or the system of two exogamous classes
Dual organization probably everywhere at one time co-existent with cross-cousin marriage
Prevalence of dual organization attested by totemism and the classificatory system of relationship
Totemism as evidence of the dual organization
Totemic exogamy prevents marriage of ortho-cousins in some cases
Totemic exogamy less comprehensive than two-class exogamy
Totemic exogamy probably everywhere derived from two-class exogamy
The classificatory system of relationship as evidence of the dual organization
The classificatory system, a system of relationship between groups
The classificatory system extends the choice of wives
The classificatory system of relationship reflects a system of group marriage
In Australia the classificatory system based on two-class exogamy
The classificatory system not affected by the four- and eight-class exogamy found in some Australian tribes
Intention of successive divisions into two, four, and eight exogamous classes
Two-class exogamy intended to bar marriage of brothers with sisters
Two-class exogamy systematized the marriage of cross-cousins
Two-class exogamy barred the marriage of ortho-cousins
Preference for cross-cousin marriage probably older than two-class exogamy
Two-class exogamy derived from aversion to marriage of near kin
This derivation confirmed by comparison of rules as to cross-cousin marriage among the Urabunna, Dieri, and Arunta
Cross-cousin marriage barred by eight-class exogamy among the Arunta
Marriage of parents with children barred by four-class exogamy
Cross-cousin marriage not barred by four-class exogamy
Traces of dual organization coincident with cross-cousin marriage
The coincidence among the Dravidians of India
The coincidence in other races of Asia and America
The coincidence in Africa
The coincidence in the Indian Archipelago
The coincidence in Melanesia
The coincidence in Australia
Preference for cross-cousin marriage and prohibition of ortho-cousin marriage probably everywhere connected with dual organization
Growing aversion evinced to marriage of near kin

§ 14 An alternative Explanation of Cross-cousin Marriage
Other causes of cross-cousin marriage possible
Different theory of cross-cousin marriage proposed by Dr Rivers
Anomalous forms of marriage in Melanesia
Dr Rivers' explanation of these anomalous marriages
Dr Rivers derives cross-cousin marriage in Melanesia from marriage with mother's brother's wife
Objections to this theory as a general explanation of cross-cousin marriage
Marriage with mother's brother's wife among the Garos rather effect than cause of cross-cousin marriage
Economic motive of cross-cousin marriage among the Garos

§ 15 Cousin Marriage among Ike Arabs
Preference for marriage with an ortho-cousin, the daughter of a father's brother
Preference for marriage with father's brother's daughter among the Arabs
Cousin marriage among the Arabs of Moab
Cousin marriage among the Arabs of Egypt
Marriage with the father's brother's daughter in Morocco
Marriage with the father's brother's daughter among the Hausas
Preference for marriage with the father's brother's daughter not derived from the dual organization
Wilken's theory that such marriages originated in ignorance of paternity
Robertson Smith's theory that such marriages originated in fraternal polyandry
Marriage with the father's brother's daughter probably later than cross-cousin marriage and based on economic motives

§ 16 The Sororate and the Levirate
Jacob's marriage with his cousins
Jacob's marriage with two sisters in their lifetime
Custom of marrying several sisters in order of seniority
The sororate and the levirate
The sororate and the levirate complementary customs
The sororate and levirate among the Indians of North America
The sororate and levirate among the Indians of South America
The sororate and levirate in Africa
The sororate and levirate in Madagascar
Brothers marry in order of seniority among the Kafirs
Brothers and sisters marry in order of seniority in India
Ancient Indian law on seniors marrying before juniors
Order of seniority in marriage observed among the South Slavs
Reminiscences of the order of seniority in Britain
Order of seniority in marriage in China, the East Indies, and Africa
The sororate and order of seniority in modern India
The sororate and levirate in modern India
The sororate and levirate among the tribes of Assam
The sororate and levirate among other Asiatic peoples
Marriage with deceased wife's sister among Chcremiss and Mordvins
The sororate and levirate in the Indian Archipelago
The sororate and levirate in Torres Straits, New Guinea, and the Lousiades
The sororate and levirate in the New Hebrides
The sororate and levirate in Polynesia and Micronesia
The sororate and levirate in Australia
Probable origin of the sororate and levirate in the marriage of a group of brothers to a group of sisters
This form of group marriage in Australia and India
Santal marriage of a group of brothers to a group of sisters
This form of group marriage combines the sororate and levirate
Parallel between the Santal and the Thonga system
Survival of group marriage among the Bhuiyas
Origin of the sororate and levirate in group marriage confirmed by the classificatory terms for husband and wife
Classificatory terms for husband and wife in Australia
Classificatory terms for husband and wife in Melanesia and Polynesia
Classificatory terms for husband and wife among the Gilyaks
Sororate and levirate derived from group marriage
Sororate and levirate limited in regard to seniority
Other limitations of marriage in regard to seniority
Division of savage communities into age-grades
Age-grades among the Kaya-Kaya of New Guinea
Age-grades at Bartle Bay in New Guinea
Age-grades among tribes of British East Africa
Age-grades among the Masai
Sexual communism between members of the same age-grade
Age-grades among the Wataveta
Sexual communism between members of the same age-grade
Sexual relations regulated by age-grades
All children borne by a woman after her daughter's marriage put to death
Age-grades among the Nandi
Ceremonies at circumcision among the Nandi
Circumcision and the reincarnation of the dead
Circumcision in relation to age-grades
Transference of government from one age-grade to another
Age-grades among the Akamba and Akikuyu
Age-grades among the Suk
Age-grades among the Turkana
Age-grades among the Gallas and in Wadai
Association of age-grades with sexual communism
Converging evidence of former sexual communism
Suggested explanation of prohibition to marry before elder brother or sister
Suggested explanation of prohibition to marry daughter of junior uncle or aunt
Suggested explanation of prohibition to marry wife's elder sister
Suggested explanation of prohibition to marry younger brother's widow
Two later types of levirate, the economic and the religious
The original levirate a product of group marriage

§ 17 Serving for a Wife
How Jacob served Laban for his two wives
Custom of earning a wife by service
Serving for a wife in India
The Abbe Dubois on serving for a wife in India
Serving for a wife in Sikhim and Nepaul
Serving for a wife among the tribes of Assam
Serving for a wife in Burma and Siam
Serving for a wife among the aborigines of Indo-China
Serving for a wife in Sumatra
Serving for a wife in Celebes
Serving for a wife among the Tenggeres of Java
Serving for a wife among the Kayans of Borneo
Serving for a wife in Amboyna, Ceram, etc
Serving for a wife in the Philippine Islands
Serving for a wife among the Kamchadales
Serving for a wife among the Koryaks
Serving for a wife among the Chukchee
Serving for a wife among the Yukaghirs
Serving for a wife among the Eskimo and Indians of America
Serving for a wife in Africa

§ 18 Conclusion
Harmony of Biblical tradition with popular custom

CHAPTER VII: JACOB AND THE MANDRAKES
How Rachel conceived through eating mandrakes
Belief in the fertilizing virtue of mandrakes in modern Palestine
Amatory properties ascribed to the mandrake by the Greeks
Belief in the fertilizing power of mandrakes in Italy, England, and America
The mandrake regarded as man-like
Artificial mandrakes as charms in modern Europe
Bacon and John Parkinson on mandrakes
Artificial mandrakes in the East
The mandrake supposed to grow under a gallows
The mandrake uprooted by a dog
Valuable properties ascribed to the mandrake
The mandrake as a familiar spirit who brings wealth
Superstitions about the mandrake in Wales and England
Shakespeare on the mandrake
Narcotic property ascribed to the mandrake in antiquity
French superstition as to riches brought by mandrakes
The use of a dog to uproot the mandrake
Apuleius Platonicus on the uprooting of the mandrake
The use of a dog to uproot the aglaophotis or peony
Arab superstitions about the mandrake
Josephus on the uprooting of the baaras by a dog
The baaras perhaps the sulphur-plant
The baaras possibly the mandrake
Jewish legend as to the mandrake and the ass
Hebrew and Homeric treatment of crudities in legend
Function of the dog in the mandrake superstition
Armenian parallel
Personification of the mandrake
Dog employed to uproot other plants
Supposed rage of plants at being uprooted
Survival in poets of the primitive personification of plants

CHAPTER VIII: THE COVENANT ON THE CAIRN
Jacob's return to the land of his fathers
His dispute with Laban
The reconciliation and covenant at the cairn
The cairn personified as a witness
Rude stone monuments beyond Jordan
Stones employed to give stability to covenants
The stone at marriage in India
Oaths on stones in Scotland
Oaths on stones in Africa and India
Religious and magical uses of stones in oaths
Twofold aspect of the cairn in Jacob's covenant
Procopius on a detection of perjury
Cairns as witnesses in modern Syria

CHAPTER IX: JACOB AT THE FORD OF THE JABBOK
Jacob's descent into the glen of the Jabbok
Jacob's wrestle with a mysterious adversary at the ford
His adversary perhaps the jinnee of the river
The wrestling of Greek heroes with water-sprites
Shape-shifting in such encounters
Propitiation of water-spirits at fords
Rivers worshipped by Bantu tribes of South Africa
Offerings to rivers at crossing them in Africa
Ceremonies at crossing rivers in South India
Chiefs and kings forbidden to cross certain rivers
Ceremonies of the Angoni at crossing a river
Punishments inflicted on river-spirits
Punishing or fighting the spirits of the sea
The sinew that shrank; American Indian parallels
Ancient Mexican parallel to Jacob's nocturnal wrestle

CHAPTER X: JOSEPH'S CUP
Joseph's divining cup
Divination by appearances in water in antiquity
Divination by appearances in water or ink in modern Egypt
Divination by appearances in water in Scandinavia and Tahiti
Divination by appearances in water in the Malay Peninsula, New Guinea, Africa, and among the Eskimo
Vision of gods in water contrived by ancient oracle-mongers
Other ways of divining by a vessel of water
Divination by things dropped into water
Divination by tea-leaves in a cup
Divination by molten lead or wax in water





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