Monday, July 25, 2016

Frazer. Golden Bough (I). The Magic Art.

Today's free book is The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Part I: The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings (Third Edition, Volumes 1-2 of 12) by James George Frazer.

For the table of contents, check at the bottom of this post below the image.

The book is available at Hathi Trust: Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, and at Internet Archive: Vol 1 and Vol. 2.


Chapter I.—The King of the Wood

§ 1. Diana and Virbius
The lake and sanctuary of Diana at Nemi
the character of Diana at Nemi
rule of succession to the priesthood
legends of its origin
features of the worship of Diana at Nemi
Diana's festival
the companions of Diana, Egeria
Virbius
unhistorical character of the traditions
antiquity of the grove

§ 2. Artemis and Hippolytus
Hippolytus at Troezen
hair-offerings to Hippolytus and others
graves of Apollo and Artemis at Delos
Artemis a goddess of the wild life of nature
Hippolytus the consort of Artemis

§ 3. Recapitulation
Virbius the consort of Diana
the leafy bust at Nemi

Chapter II.—Priestly Kings
Priestly kings in ancient Italy, Greece, and other parts of the world
divinity of Spartan and other early kings
magical powers of early kings

Chapter III.—Sympathetic Magic

§ 1. The Principles of Magic
The Law of Similarity and the Law of Contact or Contagion
the two principles misapplications of the association of ideas
Sympathetic Magic in its two branches, Homoeopathic or Imitative Magic, and Contagious Magic

§ 2. Homoeopathic or Imitative Magic
Magical images to injure enemies
magical images to procure offspring
simulation of birth at adoption and circumcision
magical images to procure love
homoeopathic magic in medicine
homoeopathic magic to ensure the food supply
magical ceremonies (intichiuma) in Central Australia for the multiplication of the totems
use of human blood in Australian ceremonies
suggested origin of circumcision and of other Australian initiatory rites, particularly the
extraction of teeth
certain funeral rites designed to ensure rebirth
rites to secure rebirth of animals and plants
general theory of magical (intichiuma) and initiatory rites in Australia
homoeopathic magic in fishing and hunting
negative magic or taboo
examples of homoeopathic taboos
homoeopathic taboos on food
magical telepathy
telepathy in hunting
telepathy in war
various cases of homoeopathic magic
homoeopathic magic to make plants grow
persons influenced homoeopathically by plants
homoeopathic magic of the dead
homoeopathic magic of animals
homoeopathic magic of inanimate things
homoeopathic magic of iron
homoeopathic magic of stones
homoeopathic magic of sun, moon, and stars
homoeopathic magic of the tides
homoeopathic magic of grave-clothes and city sites in China
homoeopathic magic to avert misfortune

§ 3. Contagious Magic
Supposed physical basis of sympathetic magic
effect of contagious magic in fostering cleanliness
contagious magic of teeth
contagious magic of navel-string and afterbirth or placenta
afterbirth or navel-string a seat of the external soul
contagious magic of wounds and spilt blood
contagious magic of garments
contagious magic of footprints and other bodily impressions

§ 4. The Magician's Progress
Elevation of public magicians to the position of chiefs and kings
rise of monarchy essential to the emergence of mankind from savagery

Chapter IV.—Magic and Religion
Affinity of magic to science
its fatal flaw
relation of magic to religion, definition of religion
opposition of principle between magic and science on the one side and religion on the other
hostility of religion to magic in later history
confusion of magic and religion in early times and among savages
confusion of magic and religion in modern Europe
confusion of magic and religion preceded by an earlier age in which magic existed without religion
universality of the belief in magic among the ignorant classes at the present day
resulting danger to civilisation
change from magic to religion following the recognition of the inefficacy of magic
the early gods viewed as magicians
difficulty of detecting the fallacy of magic

Chapter V.—The Magical Control of the Weather

§ 1. The Public Magician
Two types of man-god, the religious and the magical
rise of a class of public magicians a step in social and intellectual progress

§ 2. Magical Control of Rain
Importance of the magical control of the weather, especially of rain
rain-making based on homoeopathic or imitative magic
examples of rain-making by homoeopathic or imitative magic
stopping rain by fire
rain-making among the Australian aborigines
belief that twins control the weather, especially the rain
the rain-maker makes himself wet, the maker of dry weather keeps himself dry
rain-making by means of leaf-clad girls or boys in south-eastern Europe and India
rain-making by means of puppets in Armenia and Syria
rain-making by bathing and sprinkling of water
beneficial effects of curses
rain-making by women
ploughing
rain-making by means of the dead
rain-making by means of animals, especially black animals
rain-making by means of frogs
stopping rain by rabbits and serpents
doing violence to the rain-god in order to extort rain
compelling saints in Sicily to give rain
disturbing the rain-god in his haunts
appealing to the pity of the rain-gods
rain-making by means of stones
rain-making in classical antiquity

§ 3. The Magical Control of the Sun
Helping the sun in eclipse
various charms to make sunshine
human sacrifices to the sun in ancient Mexico
sacrifice of horses to the sun
staying the sun by means of a net or string or by putting a stone or sod in a tree
accelerating the moon

§ 4. The Magical Control of the Wind
Various charms for making the wind blow or be still
winds raised by wizards and witches
fighting the spirit of the wind

Chapter VI.—Magicians as Kings
Magic not the only road to a throne
danger of too simple and comprehensive theories
discredit which such theories have brought on mythology
magic only a partial explanation of the rise of kings
social importance of magicians among the aborigines of Australia
social importance of magicians in New Guinea
magical powers of chiefs and others in Melanesia
evolution of chiefs or kings out of magicians, especially out of rain-makers in Africa
kings in Africa and elsewhere punished for drought and dearth
power of medicine-men among the American Indians
power of medicine-men among the pagan tribes of the Malay Peninsula
development of kings out of magicians among the Malays
magical virtue of regalia
magical powers of kings among the Aryan races
touching for the King's Evil
general conclusion

Chapter VII.—Incarnate Human Gods
Conception of gods slowly evolved
decline of magic
conception of incarnate human gods an early stage of religious history
incarnation either temporary or permanent
temporary incarnation of gods in human form in Polynesia, Fiji, Bali, and Celebes
temporary deification of sacrificer in Brahman ritual
the new birth
temporary incarnation or inspiration produced by drinking blood
temporary inspiration produced by sacred tree or plant
inspired sacrificial victims
divine power acquired by temporary inspiration
human gods in the Pacific
human gods in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Germany
human gods in Africa
divinity of kings in Madagascar
divinity of kings and men in the East Indies
divine kings and men in Burma, Siam and Tonquin
human gods in India
pretenders to divinity among Christians
transmigrations of human divinities especially of the divine Lamas
incarnate human gods in the Chinese empire
divine kings of Peru and Mexico
divinity of the emperors of China and Japan
divinity of early kings
divinity of Egyptian kings
conclusion, development of sacred kings out of magicians

Appendix.—Hegel on Magic and Religion

Volume 2 begins here:

Chapter VIII.—Departmental Kings of Nature
The King of the Wood at Nemi probably a departmental king of nature
Kings of Rain in Africa
Kings of fire and Water in Cambodia

Chapter IX.—The Worship of Trees

§ 1. Tree-spirits
Great forests of ancient Europe
tree-worship practised by all Aryan races in Europe
trees regarded as animate
tree-spirits, sacrifices to trees
trees sensitive to wounds
apologies for cutting down trees
bleeding trees
trees threatened to make them bear fruit
attempts to deceive spirits of trees and plants
trees married to each other
trees in blossom and rice in bloom treated like pregnant women
trees tenanted by the souls of the dead
trees as the abode, not the body, of spirits
ceremonies at felling trees
propitiating tree-spirits in house-timber
sacred trees the abode of spirits
sacred groves

§ 2. Beneficent Powers of Tree-spirits

Tree-spirit develops into anthropomorphic deity of the woods
tree-spirits give rain and sunshine
tree-spirits make crops to grow
the Harvest May and kindred customs
tree-spirits make herds and women fruitful
green boughs protect against witchcraft
influence of tree-spirits on cattle among the Wends, Esthonians, and Circassians
tree-spirits grant offspring or easy delivery to women

Chapter X.—Relics of Tree-worship in Modern Europe
May-trees in Europe, especially England
May-garlands in England
May customs in France, Germany, and Greece
Whitsuntide customs in Russia
May-trees in Germany and Sweden
Midsummer trees and poles in Sweden
village May-poles in England and Germany
tree-spirit detached from tree and represented in human form, Esthonian tale
tree-spirit represented simultaneously in vegetable and human form
the Little May Rose
the Walker
Green George
double representation of tree-spirit by tree and man among the Oraons
double representation of harvest-goddess Gauri
W. Mannhardt's conclusions
tree-spirit or vegetation=spirit represented by a person alone
leaf-clad mummers (Green George, Little Leaf Man, Jack-in-the-Green, etc.)
leaf-clad mummers called Kings or Queens (King and Queen of May, Whitsuntide King, etc)
Whitsuntide Bridegroom and Bride
Midsummer Bridegroom and Bride
the Forsaken Bridegroom or Bride
St. Bride in Scotland and the Isle of Man
May Bride or Whitsuntide Bride

Chapter XI.—The Influence of the Sexes on Vegetation
The marriage of the King and Queen of May intended to promote the growth of vegetation by homoeopathic magic
intercourse of the sexes practised to make the crops grow and fruit-trees to bear fruit
parents of twins supposed to fertilise the bananas in Uganda
relics of similar customs in Europe
continence practised in order to make the crops grow
incest and illicit love supposed to blight the fruits of the earth by causing drought or excessive rain
traces of similar beliefs as to the blighting effect of adultery and incest among the ancient Jews, Greeks, Romans, and Irish
possible influence of such beliefs on the institution of the forbidden degrees of kinship
explanation of the seeming contradiction of the foregoing customs
indirect benefit to humanity of some of these superstitions

Chapter XII.—The Sacred Marriage

§ 1. Diana as a Goddess of Fertility
Dramatic marriages of gods and goddesses as a charm to promote vegetation
Diana as a goddess of the woodlands
sanctity of holy groves in antiquity
the breaking of the Golden Bough a solemn rite, not a mere piece of bravado
Diana a goddess of the teeming life of nature both animal and vegetable
deities of woodlands naturally the patrons of the beasts of the woods
the crowning of hunting dogs on Diana's day a purification for their slaughter of the beasts of the
wood
as goddess of the moon, especially the yellow harvest moon, Diana a goddess of crops and of childbirth
as a goddess of fertility Diana needed a male partner

§ 2. The Marriage of the Gods
Marriages of the gods in Babylonia and Assyria
marriage of the god Ammon to the Queen of Egypt
Apollo and his prophetess at Patara
Artemis and the Essenes at Ephesus
marriage of Dionysus and the Queen at Athens
marriage of Zeus and Demeter at Eleusis
marriage of Zeus and Hera at Plataea
marriage of Zeus and Hera in other parts of Greece
the god Frey and his human wife in Sweden
similar rites in ancient Gaul
marriages of gods to images or living women among uncivilised peoples
custom of the Wotyaks
custom of the Peruvian Indians
marriage of a woman to the Sun among the Blackfoot Indians
marriage of girls to fishing-nets among the Hurons and Algonquins
marriage of the Sun-god and Earth-goddess among the Oraons
marriage of women to gods in India and Africa
marriage of women to water-gods and crocodiles
virgin sacrificed as a bride to the jinnee of the sea in the Maldive Islands

§ 3. Sacrifices to Water-spirits
Stories of the Perseus and Andromeda type
water-spirits conceived as serpents or dragons
sacrifices of human beings to water-spirits
water-spirits as dispensers of fertility
water-spirits bestow offspring on women
love of river-spirits for women in Greek mythology
the Slaying of the Dragon at Furth in Bavaria
St. Romain and the Dragon at Rouen

Chapter XIII.—The Kings of Rome and Alba

§ 1. Numa and Egeria
Egeria a nymph of water and the oak
perhaps a form of Diana
marriage of Numa and Egeria a reminiscence of the marriage of the King of Rome to a goddess of water and vegetation

§ 2. The King as Jupiter
The Roman king personated Jupiter and wore his costume
the oak crown as a symbol of divinity
personation of the dead by masked men among the Romans
the kings of Alba as personifications of Jupiter
legends of the deaths of Roman kings point to their connexion with the thunder-god
local Jupiters in Latium
the oak-groves of ancient Rome
Latian Jupiter on the Alban Mount
woods of Latium in antiquity
Latin worship of Jupiter like the Druidical worship of the oak
sacred marriage of Jupiter and Juno
Janus and Carna
the Flamen Dialis and Flaminica as representatives of Jupiter and Juno
marriage of the Roman king to the oak-goddess

Chapter XIV.—The King's Fire
Sacred marriage of the Fire-god with a woman
legends of the birth of Latin kings from Vestal Virgins impregnated by the fire
Vestal Virgins as wives of the Fire-god
the Vestal fire originally
the fire on the king's hearth
the round temple of Vesta a copy of the old round hut of the early Latins
rude pottery used in Roman ritual
superstitions as to the making of pottery
sanctity of the storeroom at Rome
the temple of Vesta with its sacred fire a copy of the king's house

Chapter XV.—The Fire-drill
Vestal fire at Rome rekindled by the fire-drill
use of the fire-drill by savages
the fire-sticks regarded by savages as male and female
fire-customs of the Herero
sacred fire among the Herero maintained in the chief's hut by his unmarried daughter
the Herero chief as priest of the hearth
sacred Herero fire rekindled by fire-sticks, which are regarded as male and female, and are
made from the sacred ancestral tree
the sacred Herero hearth a special seat of the ancestral spirits
sacred fire-sticks of the Herero represent deceased ancestors
sacred fire-boards as family deities among the Koryaks and Chuckchees

Chapter XVI. — Father Jove and Mother Vesta
Similarity between the fire-customs of the Herero and the ancient Latins
rites performed by the Vestals for the fertility of the earth and the fecundity of cattle
the Vestals as embodiments of Vesta, a mother-goddess of fertility
the domestic fire as a fecundating agent in marriage ritual
newborn children and the domestic fire
reasons for ascribing a procreative virtue to fire
fire kindled by friction by human representatives of the Fire-father and Fire-mother
fire kindled by friction by boy and girl or by man and woman
human fire-makers sometimes married, sometimes unmarried
holy fire and virgins of St. Brigit in Ireland
the oaks of Erin
virgin priestesses of fire in ancient Peru and Mexico
the Agnihotris or fire-priests of the Brahmans
kinds of wood employed for fire-sticks in India and ancient Greece

Chapter XVII.—The Origin of Perpetual Fires
Custom of perpetual fires probably originated in motives of convenience
races reported to be ignorant of the means of making fire
fire probably used by men before they knew how to kindle it
savages carry fire with them as a matter of convenience
Prometheus the fire-bringer
perpetual fires maintained by chiefs and kings
fire extinguished at king's death

Chapter XVIII.—The Succession to the Kingdom in Ancient Latium
The sacred functions of Latin kings in general probably the same as those of the
Roman kings
question of the rule of succession to the Latin kingship
list of Alban kings
list of Roman kings
Latin kingship apparently transmitted in female line to foreign husbands of princesses
miraculous births of kings explained on this hypothesis
marriage of princesses to men of inferior rank in Africa
traces of female descent of kingship in Greece and in Scandinavia
reminiscence of such descent in popular tales
female descent of kingship among the Picts, the Lydians, the Danes, and the Saxons
traces of female kinship or mother-kin among the Aryans, the Picts, and the Etruscans
mother-kin may survive in royal families after it has been superseded by father-kin among commoners
the Roman kings plebeians, not patricians
the first consuls at Rome heirs to the throne according to mother-kin
attempt of Tarquin to change the line of succession from the female to the male line
the hereditary principle compatible with the elective principle in succession to the throne
combination of the hereditary with the elective principle in succession to the kingship in Africa and Assam
similar combination perhaps in force at Rome
personal qualities required in kings and chiefs
succession to the throne determined by a race
custom of racing for a bride
contests for a bride other than a race
the Flight of the King (Regifugium) at Rome perhaps a relic of a contest for the kingdom and the hand of a princess
confirmation of this theory from the practice of killing a human representative of Saturn at the Saturnalia
violent ends of Roman kings
death of Romulus on the Nonae Caprotinae (7th July), an old licentious festival like the Saturnalia for the fertilisation of the fig
violent deaths of other Roman kings
succession to Latin kingship perhaps decided by single combat
African parallels
Greek and Italian kings may have personated Cronus and Saturn before they personated Zeus and Jupiter

Chapter XIX.—St. George and the Parilia
The early Italians a pastoral as well as agricultural people
the shepherds' festival of the Parilia on 21st April
intention of the festival to ensure the welfare of the flocks and herds and to guard them against witches and wolves
festival of the same kind still held in Eastern Europe on 23rd April, St. George's Day
precautions taken by the Esthonians against witches and wolves on St. George's Day, when they drive out the cattle to pasture for the first time
St. George's Day a pastoral festival in Russia
among the Ruthenians
among the Huzuls of the Carpathians
St. George as the patron of horses in Silesia and Bavaria
St. George's Day among the Saxons and Roumanians of Transylvania
St. George's Day a herdsman's festival among the Walachians, Bulgarians, and South Slavs
precautions taken against witches and wolves whenever the cattle are driven out to pasture for the first time, as in Prussia and Sweden
these parallels illustrate some features of the Parilia
St. George as a personification of trees or vegetation in general
St. George as patron of childbirth and love
St. George seems to have displaced an old Aryan god of the spring, such as the Lithuanian Pergrubius

Chapter XX.—The Worship of the Oak

§ 1. The Diffusion of the Oak in Europe

Jupiter the god of the oak, the sky, and thunder
of these attributes the oak is probably primary and the sky and thunder secondary
Europe covered with oak forests in prehistoric times
remains of oaks found in peat-bogs
ancient lake dwellings built on oaken piles
evidence of classical writers as to oak forests in antiquity
oak-woods in modern Europe

§ 2. The Aryan God of the Oak and the Thunder
Aryan worship of the oak and of the god of the oak
Zeus as the god of the oak, the thunder, and the rain in ancient Greece
Jupiter as the god of the oak, the thunder, and the rain in ancient Italy
Celtic worship of the oak
Donar and Thor the Teutonic gods of the oak and thunder
Perun the god of the oak and thunder among the Slavs
Perkunas the god of the oak and thunder among the Lithuanians
Taara the god of the oak and thunder among the Esthonians
Parjanya, the old Indian god of thunder, rain and fertility
gods of thunder and rain in America, Africa, and the Caucasus
traces of the worship of the oak in modern Europe
in the great European god of the oak, the thunder, and the
ruin, the original element seems to have been the oak

Chapter XXI.—Dianus and Diana
Recapitulation: rise of sacred kings endowed with magical or divine powers
the King of the Wood at Nemi seems to have personified Jupiter the god of the oak and to have mated with Diana the goddess of the oak
Dianus (Janus) and Diana originally dialectically different forms of Jupiter and Juno
Janus (Dianus) not originally a god of doors
double-headed figure of Janus (Dianus) derived from a custom of placing him as sentinel at doorways
parallel custom among the negroes of Surinam
originally the King of the Wood at Nemi represented Dianus (Janus), a duplicate form of Jupiter
the god of the oak, the thunder, and the sky

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